From the Swedish government's site: www.regeringen.se
The terms of reference require us to
1. propose a system in which state higher education institutions
(HEIs) charge fees for education at the first and second levels to
students from countries outside the European Economic Area
(EEA), that is, the 25 EU Member States, Iceland, Liechtenstein
2. consider whether it should be possible to charge corresponding
fees for education at the third (doctoral) level,
3. propose legislation that expresses the principle that education
should be free of charge for students from EEA countries.
We propose a new section in the Higher Education Act, stipulating
that free tuition is to apply to Swedish students and students from
other EEA countries while at the same time allowing the Government
the right to decide on fees for students from other countries.
Fees for education at the first and second level
We have understood the terms of reference to mean that the purpose
is to relieve higher education appropriations of the costs for
educating students from non-EEA countries. Our conclusion is that
these fees are to cover all such costs, but not more.
We propose that education at the first and second level for
students from non-EEA countries be financed via charges fixed by
each HEI. These fees should be assessed so that they cover the costs
of support and service to the educational programmes, the fee system and measures related to it, in addition to the costs of tuition itself.
A requirement that all costs be covered is to apply to the entire
range of fee-funded educational programmes offered, not to
individual programmes. This will enable HEIs offering a broader
range of programmes to work with a limited number of fee levels.
For reasons of legal certainty, there must be no confusion between
fees and admission to educational programmes. The same fee should
be charged to all students in the same programme. Financial support
to students who are obliged to pay fees should be given via the
grant systems for which the Swedish Institute is responsible.
Educational programmes that are fee-funded must be dimensioned,
budgeted and reported separately from those that are funded from
appropriations, and the selection of students must be made separately.
This does not need to mean a difference in the studies; as far
as possible, tuition should be organised jointly for appropriationfunded
and fee-funded students. Students paying fees should have
the same rights and obligations as other students.
Some citizens from non-EEA countries should be exempted from
fees and have the same status as Swedish and other EEA students.
This applies to
people with residence permits in, or some other particular connection
students at foreign academic institutions conducting part of
their education in Sweden in the context of a local or central
agreement on cooperation or exchange,
citizens of countries that have entered into agreements on free
movement with the EU and its Member States, such as Switzerland
With regard to eligibility, there is no reason to introduce special
rules for fee-funded education. However, selection rules must be
adapted to each educational programme and should therefore be
established locally, but within the framework of the general rule
that account must be taken of the applicants merits.
HEIs should get a right to charge fees for applications to fee-funded
programmes. We assume that the institutions will want to coordinate admissions, primarily to facilitate assessment of applicants
eligibility. The National Agency for Services to Universities and
University Colleges should be tasked with developing an IT support
system for these admissions. The National Agency for Higher Education should be tasked with developing a database describing
higher education programmes in other countries and documenting
assessments of them.
The Swedish Institute should, together with HEIs, draw up a code
of practice applying to the recruitment of foreign students and the
use of agents.
Fees should not be introduced in isolation. If they were, the
immediate result would undoubtedly be not an increase in the
number of foreign students as intended but a reduction. The fee
system instead must be seen as the linchpin of a strategy whose
other aspects must also be realised for the system to be meaningful
in the long term. This strategy should include the following:
Continued development of educational programmes attractive
to foreign students.
Greater efforts to provide support and service to foreign students.
Greater efforts to market individual educational programmes
and Swedish higher education in general.
More funding for grants to counteract the negative effects of the
introduction of fees and reduce the impact of students private
financial situations on the recruitment.
Amended rules for labour immigration to make it easier for
foreign students to stay in Sweden to work after completing
We consider it necessary for some of these initiatives to be funded
without impacting on HEI appropriations. This applies mainly to
funding for grants. The costs of increasing existing government
grants to students from non-EEA countries by an amount that
covers an assumed average fee may be estimated at SEK 11 million.
To avoid a reduction in the number of students in this category
1 650 in 2004 in connection with the introduction of fees, more
funds are needed for grants.
We propose introduction of the fee system in the academic year
2008/2009, possibly in stages over a three-year period.
We are not prepared to advocate charging individual doctoral students
fees. There are primarily two reasons for this:
Postgraduate education is largely conducted through the students
own research, and the research is largely financed via external
funds. A fee system would complicate the dialogue between HEIs
and sponsors, without providing HEIs with any more resources.
Most doctoral students have doctoral posts or postgraduate
grants, which means that they are compensated by their HEIs
for undergoing postgraduate education. A few more hold another
kind of post at their HEI. We cannot see natural conditions for
a fee system for these categories.
The number of doctoral students who are not affected by these
conditions is so small that we do not consider it meaningful to build
up a fee system. However, a closer examination should be made of
the potential for contract education at doctoral level.
24 มิ.ย. 51 17:01:29