3. การ Show of Force หรือการแสดงแสนนายุภาพทางทหาร .... ซึ่งห้ามทำแบบโจ่งแจ้งออกสื่อเด็ดขาด เพราะกัมพูชาจะสามารถเอาไปอ้างได้ว่าไทยเตรียมรุกราน แต่เราต้องทำอย่างเงียบ ๆ ให้กองทัพและรัฐบาลกัมพูชารู้ว่าเขาแย่แน่ถ้าเกิดสงคราม กองทัพมีวิธีการอยู่แล้ว คงไม่ต้องพูดอะไรมากครับ
Anupong, PM call urgent meetings on border row posttoday.com
(BangkokPost.com) - The Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Thai Army, Gen Anupong Paochinda, on Tuesday morning held an urgent meeting with relevant army officials to discuss the deepening border row between Thailand and Cambodia. The meeting was held at the Royal Thai Army Headquarters.
Prime Minister and Defence Minister Somchai Wongsawat, meanwhile, called another urgent meeting with armed force commanders and officials from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to assess the situation after Cambodia told Thailand to withdraw troops from the disputed border area before noon Tuesday.
On Monday, the Cambodian authority said a "large-scale" armed conflict may happen, if the Thai troops fail to be withdrawn from the border area near the ancient temple of Preah Vihear immediately.
In the meantime at Khao Phra Wihan (Preah Vihear) National Park, many Cambodian soldiers with full arms were dispatched near the temple and most of them were former troops of Khmer Rouge who were very familiar with the border surroundings and environment.
Thai armed forces consequently had tightened security around the national park.
However, the Commander of the Second Army Region, Lt-Gen Wiboonsak Neeparn, on Tuesday morning claimed that the situation at Preah Vihear had returned to normal, as troops from both sides engaged in more talks and shared a better understanding.
The Thai soldiers will do their best to protect the country’s sovereignty, Lt-Gen Wiboonsak added.
Fighting erupts on border Written by Post Staff Wednesday, 15 October 2008
Cambodian and Thai troops open fire on each other with small arms and artillery as tensions in disputed territory near Preah Vihear temple boil over
Heavy fighting erupted Wednesday between Cambodian and Thai troops near Preah Vihear temple, a Cambodian military commander said as a standoff over disputed border territory that has simmered since July turned violent.
"The shooting is very heavy now - this is very serious," said General Chea Saran, deputy commander of infantry operating on the frontier between the two countries. "I am meeting with my commanders before making orders."
An unnamed military officer at the Ministry of Defence also confirmed that the two sides were engaged in battle at Veal Antri, saying that a Thai helicopter had fired on the Cambodian lines, with the Cambodians responding with anti-aircraft weapons.
Tensions have been building on the frontier since Thai troops reportedly crossed the border into Cambodia in July. Several rounds of crisis talks, the most recent occurring on Monday between Thai Foreign Minister Sompong Amornvivat and his Cambodian counterpart, Hor Namhong, and Prime Minister Hun Sen, have failed to find a solution.
Soldiers from both sides engaged in a brief firefight at Veal Antri on October 3, wounding three troops. Two Thai soldiers were badly wounded when they stepped on land mines two days later while patrolling near the Cambodian front lines.
Following Monday's negotiations, Hun Sen threatened to turn the border into a "battle zone" if Thai troops did not leave Cambodia. Cambodian commanders said Tuesday that Thailand withdrew its soldiers - a claim that was disputed by Bangkok.
Loun An, deputy governor of Oddar Meanchey province, said Cambodian and Thai troops have shelled each other, and some 40 Thai troops have been surrounded by Cambodian soldiers.
Ten Thai troops near Preah Vihear temple have also surrendered, according to wire service reports.
A Cambodian soldier examines the body of a colleague who was killed near Preah Vihear temple in Preah Vihear province, some 543 kilometers north of Phnom Penh on October 15, 2008. Thai and Cambodian ceased hostilities on their disputed border October 15 more than two hours after gunfire broke out, according to the Cambodian army. The countries began exchanging fire at 2.20pm and finished at 4.40pm, Brigadier Hom Sam Ol told AFP -- although the time frame was disputed by Thailand. AFP PHOTO/TANG CHHIN SOTHY (Photo credit should read TANG CHHIN SOTHY/AFP/***** Images)
A Cambodian soldier (L) stands guard next to arrested Thai soldiers (black uniform) in a pagoda near Preah Vihear temple in Preah Vihear province, some 543 kilometers north of Phnom Penh on October 15, 2008. Thai and Cambodian ceased hostilities on their disputed border October 15 more than two hours after gunfire broke out, according to the Cambodian army.The countries began exchanging fire at 2.20pm and finished at 4.40pm, Brigadier Hom Sam Ol told AFP -- although the time frame was disputed by Thailand.AFP PHOTO/TANG CHHIN SOTHY (Photo credit should read TANG CHHIN SOTHY/AFP/***** Images)
A Cambodian soldier (L) sits next to surrendered Thai troops at Sekha Kirisvarak pagoda near the disputed 900-year-old Preah Vihear temple in Preah Vihear province, 543 km (337 miles) north of. Phnom Penh October 15, 2008. Cambodia's army captured 10 Thai soldiers on Wednesday after a battle along a disputed stretch of border near the 900-year-old Preah Vihear temple, Foreign Minister Hor Namhong said.
Cambodian soldiers stand guard next to recovered guns belonging to Thai soldiers near Preah Vihear temple in Preah Vihear province, some 543 kilometers north of Phnom Penh on October 15, 2008 after a firefight broke out near the Thai-Cambodia border. Thai and Cambodian troops exchanged fire along the border October 15, killing two Cambodian soldiers, officials said, as a dispute over land near an ancient temple turned deadly.
"OK if Cambodian want the situation look so serious on the international media to promote Prehviharn case. Then Thai soldier should support their decision by using the heavy arm to bomb 1 or 2 Khmer battalion to make it more real before ur Khmer goverment cease fire. Tomorrow we will hear who would said peace 1st"
Thai troops sit after surrendering at Sekha Kirisvarak pagoda near the disputed 900-year-old Preah Vihear temple in Preah Vihear province, 543 km (337 miles) north of Phnom Penh. October 15, 2008. Cambodia's army captured 10 Thai soldiers on Wednesday after a battle along a disputed stretch of border near the 900-year-old Preah Vihear temple, Foreign Minister Hor Namhong said.
An unnamed military officer at the Ministry of Defence also confirmed that the two sides engaged in battle at Veal Antri, saying that a Thai helicopter had fired on the Cambodian lines, with the Cambodians responding with anti-aircraft weapons.
Returning to Asia: Once a Refugee, Yoeun Revisits Thailand as a U.S. Navy Officer By Steve Clark / Richmond Times-Dispatch
Twenty Seabees from a U.S. Navy construction battalion in Guam went to Thailand two months ago to build a schoolhouse in a village. The officer in charge of the unit was Lt. Ra Yoeun, a former Richmond, Va., resident and a 1993 graduate of Virginia Military Institute.
It was an assignment Yoeun was delighted to have. It gave him the opportunity to do something special for Thailand, where in 1979 he found a haven after escaping a chaotic existence in his native Cambodia.
When he was a boy, Yoeun lived for three years in Thailand in a camp for Cambodian refugees.
The camp was heaven compared with the hell he had been through in Cambodia.
Ra Yoeun never should have lived to become an American naval officer. He should have died before the age of 10 in the infamous killing fields of Cambodia.
Everyone else in his family did.
His father, whom Yoeun believes was a Cambodian military officer, was executed by the Khmer Rouge, the communist rebels who overthrew the Cambodian government in 1975. His mother, sister and two brothers died of starvation or disease.
With luck and cunning, however, the boy dodged death and survived four years of physical labor and brainwashing in Khmer Rouge “re-education” camps far from the village where he was born.
“My survival was pure luck and a blessing,” he wrote in an e-mail message to the Times-Dispatch. Escape from Cambodia
Yoeun, whose name at birth was Sar Sethra, described his four years with the Khmer Rouge in his e-mail:
“I worked on digging dikes, canals, planting rice, building dams. All of this work involved carrying dirt, using baskets made of bamboo straws. Somehow there never seemed to be enough canals and dams. For four years that’s all we did. Lots of kids my agedand adults died from the dirt/rocks moving work, simply out of exhaustion and not enough to eat.”
When the work was done each day, the brainwashing began.
“Every night after work, the Khmer Rouge cadres held meetings. They were designed to strengthen our morale and our commitment/devotion to the Revolution. The meetings would last until 1 or 2 a.m. Those who were caught sleeping would be made an example to everyone else. Their favorite punishment was tying the kids to a tree and whipping him or her, or putting red ants on their bodies until the meeting was over. For adults, the punishment was more severe. They would be summarily and publicly executed in front of the crowds.”
Eventually, he escaped and joined a group of people walking to Thailand. When they arrived at the border, they found a refugee camp operated by the United Nations and the International Red Cross.
“The Khmer Rouge bombarded this camp. With people heading in every direction, I followed a group toward buses lined up along the border.”
He boarded a bus that took him to Kao I Dang refugee camp inside Thailand. He lived in that camp for three years. Each day he feared he would be sent back to Cambodia.
Instead, he was sent to America. On a May day in 1983, the skinny, 14-year-old Cambodian orphan who spoke no English stepped off an airplane at Richmond International Airport. All-American Boy
He was welcomed by Sheila Kleff, a social worker for Catholic Charities.
“I still stay in touch with him,” said Kleff, who attended Yoeun’s wedding in 1996 when he married Sotera Sok, also a native of Cambodia.
The couple has a 9-month-old son named Matthew.
Soon after Yoeun arrived in Richmond, he was placed in a foster home. It was the home of Bob and Jackie Spears, a Richmond couple who previously had sponsored a Cambodian family. That first year, the Spearses wondered whether the boy ever would come out of his shell.
“He was so shy,” recalled Jackie Spears.
In time, he not only came out of his shell, but flourished. He became fluent in English and was a top-notch student in high school at the Collegiate School. He was so proficient at math that he took advanced math classes at the University of Richmond during his senior year.
Roeun credits “Mom” and “Dad” Spears with shaping him into the person he became.
“I can’t stress enough the impact my parents, Jackie and Bob Spears, had on my life,” he wrote. “They created the environment for me to succeed in school.”
Yoeun’s decision to go to VMI surprised many people, but not Bob Spears. “I think Ra wanted VMI’s order and discipline.”
Having survived the brutality of the Khmer Rouge, Yoeun found VMI’s legendary “Rat Line” to be a piece of cake.
“He didn’t take it seriously,” said Bob Spears. “He had been through the real thing in Cambodia, where he had been screamed at by people who really didn’t care whether he lived or died.”
Over the past two years, Yoeun has returned to Cambodia twice to visit his native village.
“It was an emotional return both for myself and the villagers,” he wrote. “They knew from word of mouth that everyone in my family had died except me, so they assumed there was no way I would make it on my own. They thought I was dead also. They were shocked and happy to see me.”
When he was in Thailand with the Seabees in May, he did not visit the site of the refugee camp where he had lived, even though it was just a two-hour drive from the village where the schoolhouse was built.
“The Thai officers offered to take me there, but my responsibilities prevented me from going,” he wrote.
Perhaps one day he will go back there.
“When I was in the refugee camp, I was hoping they would let me live in the camp forever,” he said. “It was the first place that I was at peace.
Thailand urges Cambodia to investigate violation of landmine ban
October 17, 2008, 7:42 pm
On 17 October 2008, Mr. Anuson Chinvanno, Director-General of the Department of East Asian Affairs, met with Mr. Mr. Ouk Sophoin, Cambodian Charge dAffaires to Thailand, at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and presented the latter with an Aide-Memoire regarding the incident on 6 October 2008, during which two Thai soldiers stepped on landmines and lost their legs during a routine patrol inside Thai territory. The gist of the Aide-Memoire can be summarized as follows:
1. The Royal Thai Government views the said landmine incident with great alarm, as it indicates violation of the Convention on the Prohibition on the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction of 1997, known as the Ottawa Mine Ban Convention, as well as a threat to international peace.
2. Royal Thai Government wishes to strongly emphasize that the de-mining operation undertaken by Thai Mines Action Center (TMAC) and other NGOs on 13 October 2008 in the area adjacent to the Temple of Phra Viharn, was conducted within Thai territory. The PMN2-type mines that were found at Phu Ma Khua by TMAC and other NGOs are newly-planted.
3. The Royal Thai Government urges the Cambodian authorities concerned to investigate whether any individual within Cambodias jurisdiction has violated legislation to ban the use of anti-personnel landmines. The Royal Thai Government wishes to point out that according to Cambodias 2005 transparency report submitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations under Article 7 of the Ottawa Mine Ban Convention, Cambodia reported that in 2002, 240 PMN2-type landmines out of a total of 3,405 were transferred from the Ministry of Interior of Cambodia to Cambodian Mine Action Centre (CMAC) for development and training. The Royal Thai Government wishes to urge the Cambodian authorities concerned to verify as to where the remaining of the PMN-2 anti-personnel mines are so as to justify the Cambodian statement that Cambodia has no stock of mines.
4. The Royal Thai Government regards this development with grave concern, as the incident marked a serious violation of the Ottawa Mine Ban Convention by a state which is also a State Party to the Ottawa Mine Ban Convention. Thailand is deeply disappointed that anti-personnel landmines are still used in this day and age. It is also truly disheartening that a fellow State Party to the Ottawa Mine Ban Convention who fully understands the dreadful effects of landmines could still carry out such an act.
5. With regard to the provision under Article 8 of the Ottawa Mine Ban Convention, there are measures that can be taken by Thailand, and Thailand reserves her right to carry out such measures. However, in order to achieve the goal set fourth in the Convention and as Cambodia and Thailand are State Parties to the Convention, Thailand is therefore ready to consult and cooperate with the Royal Government of Cambodia to resolve our existing differences. Thailand remains committed to resolving our neighbourly issues peacefully through bilateral consultations under the many frameworks already in place.
Regarding bilateral talks, the Director-General also informed the Charge d Affaires that the Cabinet should be able to appoint the new Thai Chairman of the Thai-Cambodian Joint Commission on Demarcation for Land Boundary (JBC) next week. It was also expected that at its meeting on 22 October 2008, the House of Representatives would consider the negotiating framework on the provisional arrangement between Thailand and Cambodia, which would pave the way for further talks between both countries.
The PMN-2 is a plastic-cased, pressure operated, anti-personnel blast mine (including a complex arming-delay and blast resistance mechanism). Made in the former Soviet Union, it has been found in Afghanistan, Angola, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Chechnya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Honduras, Lebanon, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Tajikistan and Thailand. The mine has a body that is usually green plastic (occasionally brown) with a black rubber cross on top.
Height: 53mm Diameter: 120mm Main charge: 100g TNT/RDX
The PMN-2 detonator is integral but the booster charge screws into the base. The HE charge is entirely on the side of the mine opposite the arming pin (it is lacquered black in the picture above). To destroy the mine with a small explosive charge, the charge must be placed on the side adjacent to the HE charge.
The picture below shows the parts of the pressure plate.
Although a complex mine (which often means "unreliable") the PMN-2 remains functional in most ground conditions for many years.
Soviet / Russian PMN-2 Landmine INFO ONLY. NOT FOR SALE P90-11 The former Soviet PMN-2 is a pressure activated antipersonnel blast mine and the successor to the PMN mine. The main improvement over the PMN is the incorporation of a blast resistant pressure fuze in the PMN-2. Additionally, the mine appears to be capable of mechanical emplacement. Due to several factors, including the small surface of the rubber cover X-shaped pressure plate and an integral baffle configuration, the mine is not susceptible to traditional explosive mine countermeasures. Disposal of this mine is by detonation.
The mine is green or black.
* Height: 53 mm * Diameter: 120 mm * Main charge weight: 100g RDX/TNT * Total weight: 420g * Fuze: MD-9 (stab-sensitive)
The PMN-1 and PMN-2 (both called Black Widow) are blast type anti-personnel mines designed and manufactured in Russia. It is one of the most widely used and commonly found devices during demining operations. The PMN-1 mine is particularly deadly because it contains an unusually large explosive filling. In general, anti-personnel blast mines (eg the VS-50) are designed to destroy a victim's foot. In contrast, a PMN mine can destroy a victim's entire leg, in addition to inflicting injuries on the other limb. A typical anti-personnel blast landmine contains approximately 50 grams of explosive, which is less than a quarter of the explosive charge within a PMN-1. The PMN-2 also has a large explosive filling when compared to many other anti-personnel landmines.
Both mines are palm sized and cylindrical in shape. The PMN's has a bakelite case (brown in colour) with a black rubber pressure-plate and contains TNT explosive. Its successor, the PMN-2, is plastic cased (leaf-green in colour, but occasionally brown) and contains an RDX/TNT based explosive that is similar to Composition B.
Note: a significant difference between these two mines is that the the PMN-2 (a 1970s design) contains a more modern fuze with an integral baffle beneath the pressure plate. This and the X-shaped design of the pressure plate makes the PMN-2 much more resistant to traditional explosive mine countermeasures, which use sudden blast overpressure to detonate mines. In contrast, the PMN-1 (a 1950s design) can successfully be cleared by such methods.
Military budget to be hiked Written by Kay Kimsong Tuesday, 21 October 2008
Border clashes with Thailand highlight need for better army
THE government has proposed a massive increase in military spending in next years budget, as conflict on the border with Thailand raises fears over the Kingdoms readiness to do battle with a better-equipped foe.
"I think national defence will be one of the top priorities for the government from now on," Cheam Yeap, a senior lawmaker with the Cambodian Peoples Party, told the Post Monday.
The Council of Ministers on Friday announced it would increase defense spending by more than US$200 million from its 2007 levels. The final 2008 budget figures were not available.
Previous National Assembly budgets had been reducing national defense funding by two to four percent annually in line with the governments spending priorities.
But the shift was warranted, said Cheam Yeap "Even if the National Assembly approves a $500 million annual budget [for defence], it will still not be enough because our current army equipment is so out of date" Cheam Yeap said.
"Our armed forces need proper military bases, good wages, healthcare, uniforms and professional army training," he added.
However, opposition Sam Rainsy Party lawmaker Cheam Channy expressed fears that corrupt army officials would use the sizable increase in spending as an excuse to pocket more of the national budget.
"Our country has a border conflict with Thailand, so it is necessary to increase the defense budget," said Cheam Channy, adding however, that he suspected little of the increased funding would make it to the areas where it was most needed.
Ok Socheat, an advisor to the governments coalition partner Funcinpec, welcomed the surge in funding.
But he expressed hope that, were a peaceful solution to the current standoff found, the Kingdom could once again reduce defence spending.
"Every country, once they go to war, will see their economic growth become weak," he said. "I think finding a win-win strategy is the only solution for Cambodia and Thailand."